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مواد دارویی که که برای درمان یک بیماری نادر استفاده می شود،

مجموعه ای کامل از آئین نامه ها و ضوابط داروئی ایران که توسط وزارت بهداشت و درمان پزشکی تهیه شده وشامل مطالب زیر می باشد:

نام ژنریک: سولیفناسین

طبقه بندی:داروی آنتی موسکارین

مورد مصرف: بی اختیاری ادار

طبقه بندی فارماکولوژیک: ترکیب استروژن و پروژسترون
طبقه بندی درمانی: جلوگیری‌از حاملگی
طبقه بندی مصرف در دوران حاملگی : گروه X

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PART 1

Heroin is a depressant drug which means it slows down your body’s systems. This in turn affects concentration, balance and coordination. Heroin will affect a person’s ability to drive any kind of vehicle or operate machinery. When combined with other depressant drugs such as alcohol or cannabis, it is even more dangerous, resulting in a coma or even death.

The Law
In Queensland it is illegal to possess, sell or use heroin.

Tolerance and Dependence
Tolerance develops very quickly with continued use. The body soon learns to cope with heroin, and the same dose produces weaker and weaker effects each time the drug is used.

Most heroin users very quickly become physically and psychologically dependent on heroin. The body chemistry of the user changes until he/she must keep on taking the drug just to feel normal.

Most users feel that they can control their use but this is rarely true. Very soon, they become totally dependent and their whole life revolves around getting and using the drug. Most users also begin to rely on the feelings heroin gives them, to defend them from the pressures of the real world.

Withdrawal
Sudden withdrawal from heroin use is usually uncomfortable but rarely causes death. There is less danger withdrawing from heroin than from alcohol or barbiturates. The user may have feel like he/she has a severe bout of flu.

Symptoms include:

  • runny nose,
  • sore eyes,
  • sore throat,
  • headache,
  • diarrhoea,
  • stomach cramps,
  • profuse sweating
  • wild temperature fluctuations,
  • aching muscles,
  • severe cramps
  • stiff joints.

As well as these physical problems, the user will feel a real psychological craving to continue the drug. These urges to go back to using heroin are very powerful, and relapses in those trying to give it up are very common.
Overdose
The strength of heroin sold on the street is often unknown and it is easy to use too much and overdose. This causes severe breathing problems and coma. Unless medical help is obtained quickly, the breathing rate will continue to fall until it stops altogether and the person dies.

Heroin Tablets. Unlike the heroin tablets produced in the past, these are intended for oral use, not injection.
Actual size of 10mg heroin tablet

Freeze-dried heroin ampoules which are made in various strengths.

Pakistan and Afghanistan heroin. Most heroin seized in this country today originates from the north-west frontier region of Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Chinese heroin ‘No 3’ in distinctive granules. Produced for smoking, it was encountered in London during the early 1970’s

Chinese heroin ‘No 4’ – a more refined form of heroin originating in the same ‘Golden Triangle’ area as Chinese heroin ‘No 3’

‘Tracking marks’, along the veins in the arm. Ulcers, sores, puncture wounds and bruises develop at the site of repeated injections

‘Tracking marks’, along the veins in the leg. Ulcers, sores, puncture wounds and bruises develop at the site of repeated injections

A street user deal of heroin which may vary from 125-250mg and cost approximately $25

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PART 1   PART 3

Seroquel Oral Precautions

Before taking quetiapine, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: Alzheimer’s disease, low blood pressure, disease of the blood vessels in the brain (e.g., stroke), blood disorders (e.g., leukopenia, neutropenia), a severe loss of body water (dehydration), certain eye problems (cataracts), liver disease, seizures, trouble swallowing, thyroid problems.

Also tell your doctor or pharmacist if you or a family member has a history of the following: alcohol/drug abuse, diabetes, heart disease (e.g., ischemic heart disease, heart failure, heart rhythm problems), high blood cholesterol/triglyceride levels, high blood pressure, obesity.

Get up slowly when rising from a sitting or lying position to avoid dizziness and lightheadedness. This is more likely to occur in the first few days after starting/restarting the drug or after your dose increases.

This drug may make you dizzy or drowsy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely. Avoid alcoholic beverages.

This drug may also cause significant weight gain and a rise in your blood cholesterol (or triglyceride) levels. These effects may increase your risk for developing heart disease, especially if you also have diabetes. Discuss the risks and benefits of treatment with your doctor. (See also Notes section.)

This drug may infrequently make your blood sugar level rise, causing or worsening diabetes. This high blood sugar can rarely cause serious conditions such as diabetic coma. Tell your doctor immediately if you develop symptoms of high blood sugar such as unusual increased thirst/urination or vision changes. If you already have diabetes, be sure to check your blood sugar level regularly.

This drug can make you more likely to get heat stroke. Avoid activities that may cause you to overheat (e.g., strenuous work, exercising in hot weather, using hot tubs). Drink plenty of fluids, dress lightly, and stay in cool/air-conditioned areas when the weather is hot.

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PART 1

Prozac Oral Side Effects

See also Warning section.

Nausea, drowsiness, dizziness, anxiety, trouble sleeping, loss of appetite, weakness, tiredness, sweating, or yawning may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor immediately if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: unusual or severe mental/mood changes ( such as agitation, unusual high energy/excitement, thoughts of suicide), uncontrolled movements (for example, movements of the lips/tongue), shakiness (tremor), restlessness, inability to keep still, decreased interest in sex, changes in sexual ability, blurred vision, numbness/tingling.

Tell your doctor immediately if any of these rare but very serious side effects occur: bloody/black/tarry stools, vomit that looks like coffee grounds, easy bruising/bleeding, fainting, fast/irregular heartbeat, muscle weakness/spasm, seizures, change in amount of urine.

This medication may rarely cause a very serious condition called serotonin syndrome. The risk increases when this medication is used with certain other drugs such as “triptans” used to treat migraine headaches (including sumatriptan, eletriptan), certain antidepressants including other SSRIs (such as citalopram, paroxetine) and SNRIs (such as duloxetine, venlafaxine), lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, or a certain drug to treat obesity (sibutramine). See also Drug Interactions section. Before taking this drug, tell your doctor if you take any of these medications. Serotonin syndrome may be more likely when you start or increase the dose of any of these medications. Seek immediate medical attention if you develop some of the following symptoms: hallucinations, unusual restlessness, loss of coordination, fast heartbeat, severe dizziness, unexplained fever, severe nausea/vomiting/diarrhea, twitchy muscles.

Rarely, males may have a painful or prolonged erection lasting 4 or more hours. If this occurs, stop using this drug and seek immediate medical attention, or permanent problems could occur.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

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PART 1

If you have liver problems, consult your doctor or pharmacist for a safe dosage of this medication.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Percocet Oral Overdose

If overdose is suspected, contact your poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call the US National Poison Hotline at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center. Symptoms of overdose may include vomiting, slow breathing, slow heartbeat, cold/clammy skin, unusual sweating, loss of consciousness, severe nausea, yellowing eyes or skin, dark urine, stomach pain, or extreme tiredness.

NOTES:Do not share this medication with others. It is against the law.

This medication has been prescribed for your current condition only. Do not use it later for another condition unless your doctor directs you to do so. A different medication may be necessary in that case.

MISSED DOSE:If you take this medication regularly and you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

STORAGE:Store at room temperature away from light and moisture. See packaging for the exact temperature range. If you have any questions about storage, ask your pharmacist. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medicines away from children and pets.

Flush this medication down the toilet when it is expired or no longer needed.

Percocet Oral Interactions

The effects of some drugs can change if you take other drugs or herbal products at the same time. This can increase your risk for serious side effects or may cause your medications not to work correctly. These drug interactions are possible, but do not always occur. Your doctor or pharmacist can often prevent or manage interactions by changing how you use your medications or by close monitoring.

To help your doctor or pharmacist give you the best care, be sure to tell your doctor or pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products) before starting treatment with this product. While using this product, do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any other medicines you are using without your doctor’s approval.

Some of the products that may interact with this drug include: “blood thinners” (such as warfarin), cimetidine, certain medications for pain (opiate partial agonists such as butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine), isoniazid, naltrexone.

The risk of serious side effects (such as slow/shallow breathing, severe drowsiness/dizziness) may be increased if this medication is taken with other products that also affect breathing or cause drowsiness. Therefore, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking other products such as alcohol, anti-seizure drugs (such as phenobarbital), medicine for sleep or anxiety (such as alprazolam, diazepam, zolpidem), muscle relaxants, other narcotic pain relievers (such as codeine), and psychiatric medicines (such as thioridazine, risperidone, amitriptyline, trazodone). Your medications or doses of your medications may need to be changed.

Check the labels on all your medicines (such as allergy or cough-and-cold products) because they may contain ingredients that cause drowsiness. Ask your pharmacist about using those products safely.

Acetaminophen is an ingredient in many nonprescription products and in some combination prescription medications. Read the labels carefully before taking other pain relievers, fever reducers, or cold products to see if they also contain acetaminophen. Consult your pharmacist if you are uncertain if your other prescription or nonprescription products contain acetaminophen. (Also see adult maximum daily dose information in Side Effects section).

This medication may interfere with certain laboratory tests (including amylase and lipase levels), possibly causing false test results. Make sure laboratory personnel and all your doctors know you use this drug.

This document does not contain all possible interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use. Share this list with your doctor and pharmacist to lessen your risk for serious medication problems.

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PART 1

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Before taking this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other narcotic pain relievers (such as codeine, hydrocodone); or if you have any other allergies.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: intestinal/bowel disorders (such as paralytic ileus, infectious diarrhea, colitis, blockage), kidney disease, liver disease, lung diseases (such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-COPD), breathing problems (such as slow/shallow breathing, sleep apnea), a certain spinal problem (kyphoscoliosis), certain heart problems (such as low blood pressure, irregular heartbeat), personal or family history of regular use/abuse of drugs/alcohol/other substances, brain disorders (such as seizures, head injury, tumor, increased intracranial pressure), underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism), difficulty urinating (for example, due to enlarged prostate or narrowed urethra), disease of the pancreas (such as pancreatitis), mental/mood disorders (such as toxic psychosis), gallbladder disease, adrenal gland problem (such as Addison’s disease).

This drug may make you dizzy or drowsy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely. Avoid alcoholic beverages.

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist that you are using this medication.

Liquid forms of this product may contain sugar and/or alcohol. Caution is advised if you have diabetes, alcohol dependence, or liver disease. Ask your doctor or pharmacist about using this product safely.

Older adults may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially slow/shallow breathing and drowsiness.

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Using it for long periods or in high doses near the expected delivery date is not recommended because of possible harm to the unborn baby. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor. Infants born to mothers who have used this medication for a long time may have withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, abnormal/persistent crying, vomiting, or diarrhea. Tell your doctor immediately if you notice any of these symptoms in your newborn.

This medication passes into breast milk and may have undesirable effects on a nursing infant. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

Oxycodone Oral Interactions

The effects of some drugs can change if you take other drugs or herbal products at the same time. This can increase your risk for serious side effects or may cause your medications not to work correctly. These drug interactions are possible, but do not always occur. Your doctor or pharmacist can often prevent or manage interactions by changing how you use your medications or by close monitoring.

To help your doctor or pharmacist give you the best care, be sure to tell your doctor or pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products) before starting treatment with this product. While using this product, do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any other medicines you are using without your doctor’s approval.

Some of the products that may interact with this drug include: cimetidine, certain medications for pain (opiate partial agonists such as butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine), naltrexone.

The risk of serious side effects (such as slow/shallow breathing, severe drowsiness/dizziness) may be increased if this medication is taken with other products that may also affect breathing or cause drowsiness. Therefore, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking other products such as alcohol, anti-seizure drugs (such as phenobarbital), medicine for sleep or anxiety (such as alprazolam, diazepam, zolpidem), muscle relaxants, other narcotic pain relievers (such as codeine), and psychiatric medicines (such as risperidone, amitriptyline, trazodone). Your medications or doses of your medications may need to be changed.

Check the labels on all your medicines (such as allergy or cough-and-cold products) because they may contain ingredients that cause drowsiness. Ask your pharmacist about using those products safely.

This medication may interfere with certain laboratory tests (including amylase and lipase levels), possibly causing false test results. Make sure laboratory personnel and all your doctors know you use this drug.

This document does not contain all possible interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use. Share this list with your doctor and pharmacist to lessen your risk for serious medication problems.

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  Part 1  Part 2 Part3

Drug Interactions:

It can be dangerous to administer bisoprolol concomitantly with the following medicines:

Hypoglycaemic agents, phenothiazines and various antiarrhythmic agents.

N.B. – Such medicine interactions can have life-threatening consequences. It may enhance the effects of hypoglycaemic agents in patients with diabetes mellitus as well as the effects of myocardial depressants such as lignocaine, procainamide and quinidine.

The effects may be antagonised by beta-adrenoceptor stimulating agents (e.g. isoprenaline). The hypotensive effects may be dangerously reversed by alpha-adrenoceptor stimulants. The vasoconstrictor effects may be dangerously enhanced by alpha-adrenoceptor stimulants. The effects may be enhanced by adrenergic neurone blocking agents such as guanethidine and reserpine.

The anaesthetist should be informed of bisoprolol therapy prior to any operation.

The half-life of bisoprolol can be slightly shortened by the simultaneous administration of rifampicin. An increase in the dose is generally unnecessary. The pharmacokinetics of bisoprolol are not significantly influenced by cimetidine.

KNOWN SYMPTOMS OF OVERDOSAGE AND PARTICULARS OF ITS TREATMENT:

Overdosage may produce bradycardia and severe hypotension. Bronchospasm and heart failure may be produced in certain individuals.

Bradycardia associated with severe hypotension should be treated with intravenous atropine (1 – 2 mg). If necessary this should be followed up by a slow intravenous infusion of 25 micrograms isoprenaline. Bronchospasm should be treated with intravenous aminophylline, and heart failure with digitalis and diuretics.

IDENTIFICATION:

CONCOR* 5 tablets: Light yellow, heart-shaped biconvex film-coated tablets, scored on both sides.

CONCOR* 10 tablets: Light orange, heart-shaped biconvex film-coated tablets, scored on both sides.

PRESENTATION:

Blister packs containing 30 tablets.

STORAGE INSTRUCTIONS:

Store below 25°C in airtight containers and protect from light.

Keep all medicines out of reach of children.

  Part 1  Part 2 Part3

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  Part 1  Part 2  Part3

DOSAGE AND DIRECTIONS FOR USE:

5 mg should be taken once a day in the morning, either on an empty stomach or with breakfast. If necessary, the dosage can be increased to 10 mg in the morning. An increase in the dosage to 20 mg daily may sometimes be necessary.

The dose should always be selected individually, particularly according to the heart rate and the therapeutic result. It is not necessary to adjust the dose in patients suffering from mild to moderate disturbance of the liver or renal function. In patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 20 mL/min) and in patients with severe liver function disturbance, the daily dose of 10 mg bisoprolol must not be exceeded. In some of these patients, halving the dose may be necessary. The normal dose of beta-blockers should be reduced in elderly patients.

SIDE-EFFECTS AND SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS:

Side-effects:

These include lassitude, dizziness, mild headache, perspiration, bradycardia, sleep disorders, restlessness, cold extremities, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and skin rash. Constipation, hypotension, paradoxical hypertension, depression, mass gain, paraesthesia, transient hearing loss, heart block, hallucinations, disturbances of vision, blood disorders, fluid retention, muscle cramps, allergic reactions, metabolic disturbances, alopecia, myopathies and stomatitis may occur. Overt psychosis has been reported with other beta-blockers.

Exacerbation of peripheral vascular disease, or the development of Raynaud’s phenomenon (due to the unopposed arteriolar alpha-sympathetic activation), hypoglycaemia, skeletal muscle weakness and gastro-intestinal disturbances may occur during treatment with beta-blockers. Severe peripheral vascular disease and even peripheral gangrene may be precipitated.

Special precautions:

Abrupt discontinuation of therapy may cause exacerbation of angina pectoris in patients suffering from ischaemic heart disease. Discontinuation of therapy should be gradual, and patients should be advised to limit the extent of their physical activity during the period in which the medicine is being discontinued.

Bronchoconstriction may occur in patients suffering from asthma, bronchitis and other chronic pulmonary diseases. Since bisoprolol is a highly selective beta1-adrenoceptor blocking agent, it may be used with caution in patients with chronic obstructive airway disease. However, in some asthmatic patients, an increase in airway resistance may occur. This bronchospasm can usually be reversed by commonly-used bronchodilators. Congestive cardiac failure and marked bradycardia may occur.

Bisoprolol may mask the symptoms of hyperthyroidism.

It should be used with caution in patients with hypoglycaemia.

Special note:

Digitalisation of patients receiving long-term beta-blocker therapy may be necessary if congestive cardiac failure is likely to develop. This combination can be considered despite the potentiation of negative chronotropic effect of the two medicines. Careful control of dosages and of the individual patient’s response (and notably pulse rate) is essential in this situation.

Patients with phaeochromocytoma usually require treatment with an alpha-adrenergic blocker.

Adverse reactions are more common in patients with renal decompensation.

Alterations in the following serum biochemical values have been observed in patients receiving bisoprolol: Liver enzymes, lipoproteins, uric acid.

  Part 1  Part 2  Part3

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